In any case, the verse we have just examined will serve as an excellent introduction to our next topic which is presented by the case in which we see the word Allah used by the Jews and Christians according to their own conception of God. All the historical evidence that has come down to us speaks eloquently against this view. Welcome back. And although in Mecca there seems to have been practically no Jew, the Meccans must have: been familiar with some at least of the basic ideas and concepts of Judaism. In order to be able to give a satisfactory answer to these initial questions, we will do well to remember the fact that, when the Koran began to use this name, there immediately arose serious debates among the Arabs of Mecca. Although we have no faithful contemporary records of what the Arabian people were saying among themselves on these matters, we find at least some interesting evidences in the work of the poets, particularly of those who used to compose in praise of their patrons, whether Christian kings of Hirah or of Ghassan. It is indeed remarkable that this expression implies that in an emergency when they really felt that their own life was in mortal danger, the pagan Arabs used to have recourse to 'temporary monotheism' apparently without any reflection on the grave implication of such an act. Would you like to see only ebooks? Certainly, of all the 'relational' elements that had grown around the concept of Allah in the system of Jahiliyyah, Islam found some quite erroneous, incompatible with its new religious conception, and it fought strenuously against them and against those who upheld them. Sufism and Taoism: A Comparative Study of Key Philosophical Concepts Toshihiko Izutsu. Published Tokyo : International House of Japan, 2014. Besides, in Mecca itself, there were also Christians, not only Christian slaves, but Christians of the clan of Banfi Asad b. In those days, the Arabs lived surrounded closely by great Christian powers. Toshihiko Izutsu, a Japanese philosopher, has tried to answer this question with the example of a master musician absorbed in playing his harp. But the very fact that people began to designate their own local divinity by the abstract form of "the God" must have paved the way for the growth of an abstract notion of God without any localizing qualification and then, following this, for a belief in the supreme God common to all the tribes, (God and Man in The Koran, Toshihiko Izutsu, Chapter 4: Allah, p96-119, 1980). And this is even far more important still than those cases in which we see the Christians and the Jews using the word Allah in reference to their God, because after all that is, in itself, something natural, too natural to give us any valuable clue to anything of real importance. At least this must be his intention. So, at first, each tribe may have meant its own local divinity when it used an expression equivalent in meaning to "the God"; this is quite probable. This happens, for instance, when a Bedouin poet finds occasion, as he often does in Jahiliyyah, to compose a poem in praise of a Christian king, his patron. Here I give one of the most interesting examples. The case is quite different when, for example, al-Nabigliali, a simple Bedouin poet, addressing the Christian king of al-Hirah, al-Nu'mah b. al-Mundhir, and singing in praise of the latter, uses the word Allah in this way: This Lakhmi prince al-Nu'man, widely known as Abu Qabus, whose reign fell roughly between 580 A.D. and 602 A.D., was a Christian who had been caught up in the Christian family of the very famous the father of the poet 'Adi b. Zayd whom we have just met. Since Jahiliyyah and Islam have always been put in sharp contrast, we are almost instinctively inclined to think that there must have occurred a complete break in every respect between the two when Islam arose. Sufism and Taoism: A Comparative Study of Key Philosophical ConceptsbyToshihiko Izutsu110 ratings, 4.43 average rating, 15 reviews. The great poet al-Nibighah is an outstanding example. The Weltanschauung of the Koran is essentially theocentric, and quite naturally in this system the concept of Allah reigns over the whole from above, and exerts a deep influence on the semantic structure of all the key-words. See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. See more ideas about philosophers, famous philosophers, western philosophy. And with this we turn to the third case as distinguished above, namely, the case in which the Arabs, that is, the pagan Arabs who professed neither Christianity nor Judaism, had to talk about the latter, had to refer in their talk to things pertaining to these monotheistic religions. And when the Prophet addressed his adversaries in the name of Allah all, he did so simply and solely because he knew that this name meant something and something important to their minds too. “إن الملاك في تصور العرب كائن روحي غير منظور بين الإله وبين الجني الخارق، يستحق التبجيل وحتى العبادة، ولكن ليس له مكانة محددة في النظام التراتبي للكائنات فوق الطبيعة. Many scholars agree that Toshihiko Izutsu's 1958 version of the holy book is one of the most accurate one available. Brings together Toshihiko Izutsu's most important essays on Islamic mystical philosophy. It must have taught them how to understand the word Allah in its Biblical acceptation; more important still, it must have, further, induced them gradually to identify almost unconsciously their own pagan concept of God with that of the Christians. The Ghassanids, too, were Monophysites. If we adopt the alternative interpretation, the reference to Christ becomes slightly less direct and the expression. This we can prove by ample evidence from pre-Islamic poetry, but nothing, of course, can be more decisive and authoritative than the Koran itself. 4.9 out of 5 stars 12. And this much meaning, at least, must the word have carried into the Islamic system when the Koran began to use it as the name of the God of Islamic Revelation. والقرآن نفسه يخبرنا أن هناك الكثير ممن يؤمنون بهم ويزعمون أنهم بنات الله. In addition to the examples already adduced, we may quote, for instance: This expression "Will you not then remember-" (a-fa-la tadhakkaruna), like a similar one which is also very often used "Will you not exercise your intellect" (a-fa-ls ta'qiluna), implies, in contexts of this kind, blaming and reproaching the pagans for being unable to draw, or perhaps even being unwilling to draw, the final and most important conclusion about Allah despite the fact that they have already such a right understanding of His nature. But it is also significant, and perhaps even more significant-albeit more delicate and subtle -in connection with the second case as distinguished above, that is, the problem of the purely Christian conception of Allah that was, prevalent among the Arab Christians of that age. In pre-Islamic times each tribe, as a rule, had its own local god or divinity known by a proper name. (1) When the poet used the word Allah in this way-and, we must re-member, he did not do it only once, but very frequently-something must have occurred in his psychology. Al-Nabighah, having lost the royal favor of al-Nu'man, went to Ghassan and was warmly welcomed and honored there by King 'Amr b. al-Harith al-Asghar, and began composing panegerics on this new patron and his family, known today under the name of "Ghassan encomia" Ghassanyyat. (I) The first is the pagan concept of Allah, which is purely Arabian-the case in which we see the pre-Islamic Arabs themselves talking about "Allah" as then, understand the word in their own peculiar way. However this may be, it is certain from the Koran alone, that by the time Muhammad began to preach, the pagan Arabs had come to cherish at least a vague idea, and perhaps also a vague belief, in Allah as the highest God standing above the level of local idols, This much we may reasonably assume as the 'basic' meaning, of the word Allah in Jahiliyah. Toshihiko Izutsu was Professor Emeritus at Keio University in Japan and an outstanding authority in the metaphysical and philosophical wisdom schools of Islamic Sufism, Hindu Advaita Vedanta, Mahayana Buddhism (particularly Zen), and Philosophical Taoism. The thing did not occur in such a way that the pure concept of Allah with its simple 'basic' meaning or which is suggested by its formal structure -Allah = ho theos - came straight into the Islamic conceptual system falling down, so to speak, from some metaphysical world of pure concepts. What does this mean from the semantical point of view? But it seems to have escaped the attention of those who have dealt with the problem of the influence of Christianity on pre-Islamic Arabia. Volume 3 Toshihiko Izutsu + Follow ... by T. Izutsu ( 2 ) $23.74. CHAPTER IV. What is important to remember regarding this verse is that the poet 'Adi b. Zayd was an Arab Christian, but he was neither a simple Arab nor an ordinary Christian, The fact that this man of highest culture and education put in one of his solemn oaths the Lord of Mecca and Christ together is significant, in My view, in two different ways: it is of importance, first of all, in connection with the problem of the relational meaning of the word Allah in its purely Arabian aspect. Toshihiko Izutsu 4 May 1914 - 1 July 1993. I prefer my interpretation because it makes the expression livelier and more colorful in that it places two different "Lords"- Christ and Allah-side by side. After questioning the nature of reality, the Zen student discovers that what remains is what is. Paperback. 16 Toshihiko Fukui Quotes - Inspirational Quotes at BrainyQuote The standard growth theory tells us that economic growth in per capita basis comes from mainly two sources: capital deepening and total factor productivity growth, or TFP growth. English Izutsu Toshihiko : eichi no tetsugaku. Directed by Masoud Taheri. Sabr (Arabic: صَبْرٌ , romanized: ṣabr) (literally 'endurance' or more accurately 'perseverance' and 'persistence') is one of the two parts of faith (the other being shukr) in Islam. And the way he used he word Allah is most interesting from the Islamic point of view. Only one example may suffice. It was a public phenomenon in the full sense of the word. Toshihiko Izutsu writes that in Islam, nature is not seen as something separate but as an integral part of a holistic outlook on God, humanity, the world and the cosmos. historically, it came into the Islamic system through another system, namely, the pre-Islamic system of religious concepts, however crude the latter might have been. It may have been, in the beginning, simply a slight change of nuance or a slight shift of view-point; in any case, something of no small consequence to his religious outlook must have been growing in his mind. [footnote: Many people would feel inclined to translate the last word in the verse "salib" as "Cross", not "Crucified" as I have done. Al-Ghazali Fazlur Rahman HAMKA Ismail Faruqi Muhammad Iqbal Muhammad Said Ramadan al-Buti Mohammad Hashim Kamali Osman Bakar Seyyed Hossein Nasr Syed Hussein Alatas Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud Toshihiko Izutsu وكلمة "ملاك" أو مَلَك" كانت شائعة حتى بين البدو الأقحاح، وليس فقط بين سكان المدن الذين يمكن أن يكونوا قد تأثروا بسهولة بالديانات اليهودية والفارسية في ما يخص هذا الموضوع .”. In the last two sections we have examined, first, the purely, pagan concept of Allah, and then, the Judeo-Christian concept of Allah. and How did Islam react to them? These are, roughly speaking, the major elements of the relational meaning attached to the word Allah in Jahiliyyah, that the Koran did not find incompatible with its new religious conception. It expresses surprise at the sight of the people who know and acknowledge that Allah has in His hand the supreme dominion over the whole world of being, and yet do not worship Him as He should be. 1 2 3 Next > Structure of the ethical terms in the Koran by Toshihiko Izutsu. This was the first big semantic problem which faced the Prophet Muhammad when he started his prophetic career. It goes without saying that the real semantic structure of the word Allah will become fully clear only after we have analyzed this God-man relation, because, as I said at the beginning of the last chapter, God in the Koranic Weltanschauung does not subsist in His glorious self-sufficing solitude and stand aloof from mankind as does the God of Greek philosophy, but deeply involves Himself in human affairs. Dalam melakukan analisis, penulis mengacu pada al-Qur’an. We have seen how these two were gradually tending to converge into one in the latter years of Jahiliyyah. 20, 24,30, 65, 312, 321, etc.) I will take up here one of them as an interesting example. In Surah al-'Ankabut, for example, we read: Apparently, then, Allah was, already in the conception of the pre-Islamic Arabs the Creator of the world and the Giver of rain, i.e., the Giver of life to all that exists on earth. A linguistic genius, Dr. Izutsu finished reading the entire Qur'an just one month after beginning to learn Arabic. In one of the most famous hassaniyyat, we find the following two verses that are far more interesting r our purpose than the one I have just quoted. Yathrib, Khaibar, Fadak, Tamya', and Wadi al-Qura being some of the most important centers settled by immigrant Jews or Jewish proselytes. Islam Is Repackaged Polytheism: Documentation, God and Man in The Koran, Toshihiko Izutsu, Chapter 4: Allah, p96-119, 1980. Let us begin by remarking that the name itself of Allah is common to Jahiliyyah and Islam. The first two volumes in Izutsu Library Series on Oriental Philosophy have already been published. For it is difficult to imagine that this way of using the word Allah did not exercise, unconsciously if not consciously, any influence on his image of God particularly when it repeated itself so often. Price New from Used from Hardcover "Please retry" $768.57 . But actually, i.e. Besides, we must remember, there were the Jews and the Christians with whom the Arabs had constant opportunities of a close cultural contact. These five fundamental points are discernible in the structure of the concept of Allah in the weltanschauung of Arabian paganism; this we know by the testimony of the Koran. Paperback. The interesting point is that pre-Islamic literature is not the only source of information we have at hand on the subject; full first-hand information is obtainable from an extremely vivid description of the actual situation given by the Koran itself. And this, again, may very well have cast its reflection on his conception of Allah even when he was using the same word in reference to the non-Christian, purely Arabian God. And this empathic attitude, whether its core was a deep religious emotion or but a superficial understanding of a foreign belief, must have been powerful enough to influence the conception of God not only of the poet himself but more generally of his listeners, and thereby modify, in however slight and almost imperceptible a degree, the Arab concept of Allah in the direction of monotheism. Exceedingly interesting examples are found in this respect, for instance, in the work of 'Adi b. Zayd, a, well-known Arab Christian, the Court poet of al-Hirah. Description xxv, 457 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. (5) Finally, Allah is the Lord of Ka'bah. Leaving this latter aspect of the problem to the following chapters, I would like to concentrate in the present chapter on the more specific subject of the pre-Koranic history of tile concept of Allah. The words uttered by a poet, especially a well-known great poet, were feared, venerated or loved according to cases as a real spiritual force; and they had all the weight of a valuable social, or even sometimes national, asset. Pre-Islatnic literature furnishes ample evidence to show that the conception of Allah as the Lord of the Meccan sanctuary was exceedingly wide-spread among the Arabs even outside the narrow confines of the town of Mecca. In pre-Islamic times each tribe, as a rule, had its own local god or divinity known by a proper name. (3) He is the One who presides over the most solemn oaths. Toshihiko Izutsu. $35.95. He was indeed an extraordinary figure in late Jahiliyyah. The poet complains to the king saying that the malignant slanderers did everything they could do in order to sow discord between him and the king. "The enemies tried hard against me", he says, "without desisting from doing anything that could harm me, by the Lord of Mecca and the ' Crucified". Before the name came into Islam, it had already long been part of the pre-Islamic system, and a considerably important part, too. Find books For this much we have the undeniable testimony of the Koran itself. parties. This book might as well have been entitled in a more general way "Semantics of the Qur'an" but for the fact the main part of the present study is almost extensively concerned with the problem of the personal relation between God and man in the Qur'anic worldview. GOD AND MAN IN THE KORAN. On the one hand, the Arabian paganism had been gradually developing the concept of Allah, as the Creator of the heaven. It suggests that at least the religiously more enlightened ones of the people of Mecca were conscious of worshipping Allah at this shrine. It is a famous tradition about Waraqah b. Naufal connected with Muhammad's first appearance on the stage of history as. addition to its 'basic' meaning, had acquired in the Jahili system a great deal of 'relational' meaning peculiar to the Jahili Weltanschauung. Toshihiko Izutsu Ethico Religious Concepts In The Qurán. Translated and annotated by Toshihiko Izutsu. The poets were literally leaders of the public opinion. taoism: free download. I think we are now in a somewhat better position to understand why the Koran, whenever it mentions the name of Allah, does not show any sign of hesitation or apprehension, any sign, that is, of offering something quite alien and unknown to the hearers. Al-Bukhari records it in his chapter on "How revelation began to visit the Prophet" in his Hadith collection. so called 'reality', the sensible world which surrounds us and which we are accustomed to regard as 'reality', is, for Ibn 'Arabi, but a dream. 24. Buku karya Prof. Toshihiko Izutsu ini merupakan kajian semantik terhadap konsep-konsep relasi tuhan dan manusia. English Title Toshihiko Izutsu and the philosophy of word : in search of the spiritual orient / by Eisuke Wakamatsu ; translated by Jean Connell Hoff. Here follows a brief explanation of these points. إلا أن الإسلام أتى بتغيير جوهري لهذا التصور ذي تأثير بالغ العمق على رؤية العرب للعالم. It is remarkable that the Koran, far from combating the latter, tries to make these elements more precise and impressive by force of logic. In the Ethico-Religious Concepts in the Qur'án Toshihiko Izutsu analyzes the guiding spirit of the Islamic moral code, the basic ethical relationship of man to God. The Word Allah, Its 'Basic' And 'Relational' Meanings: As I have pointed out repeatedly in the course of the previous account, Allah is the highest 'focus-word' in the Koranic system, which is surpassed by no other word in rank and importance. Their Scripture is that of God (al-Ilah, the original form of Allah), and their faith is steadfast and their hope is set solely on the world to come. What are the implications of the fact that the name of Allah was not only known to both parties but was actually used by both parties in their discussion with each other? found: Author's Language and magic, 1956. found: Creation and the timeless order of things, 1994: CIP t.p. Keeping in mind the main points we have just examined, let us go back to the problem that was raised in the first part of this chapter concerning the way in which the Koran presented the Islamic concept of Allah to the pagan auditors. Error rating book. In this case "Allah" means of course the God of the Bible, a typically monotheistic concept of God. I shall restrict myself to some points of direct relevance to the topic of the present chapter. We may answer this question conveniently in terms of the methodological distinction between 'basic' and 'relational' meaning. Furthermore, as noted above, many of the Arab intellectuals of the age had a considerable knowledge of Christianity. The Japanese sense of beauty as actualized in innumerable works of art, both linguistic and non-linguistic, has often been spoken of as something strange to, and remote from, the Western taste. To the three cases we have just mentioned we may add one more case- in extremely special one-which remained to the last independent of and somewhat aloof from, the others until Islam arose and brought it suddenly into the brilliant light of history. In general, Judeo-Christian religious concepts were, so to speak, in the air at that time, ready to influence both sides, I mean, both the jahili Arabs. الله والإنسان في القرآن book. There was also something very important which served, as it were, as a bridge between the two shores. View Toshihiko Izutsu Pdf Research Papers on Academia.edu for free. Toshihiko Izutsu introduces semantic structural analysis to study the structures of the Qur‟ānic worldview. Toshihiko Izutsu (井筒 ... Toshihiko Yamada (山田 敏彦, born 1932), Japanese ice hockey player; See also. As his been casually mentioned in the preceding section, the concept of Allah that was prevalent among the pre-Islamic Arabs on the eve of the Islamic era, was, in general, surprising close in nature to the Islamic one, so close, indeed, that the Koran sometimes even wonders why such a right understanding of God does not finally lead the disbeliever's to acknowledging the truth of the of the new teaching. See if your friends have read any of Toshihiko Izutsu's books. In this verse 'Adi b. Zayd claims his complete innocence and says that the misunderstanding on the part of the king has been produced only by the machination of the slanderers envious of his good fortune, and in order to give special weight to this declaration he swears by the Lord of Mecca and Christ putting together the two "Lords" into a single oath. Volume 1. Format Book Edition 1st English ed. It implies before anything else that this word, in. Both the Jews and the Christians in Arabia used Arabic as their vernacular, and, as I have pointed out earlier, referred to their Biblical God by the very word Allah, which was something quite natural seeing that the 'basic' meaning conveyed by this word was a very abstract one that would correspond roughly to the Greek ho theos. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 30 décembre 2019 à 08:45. In considering the problem of the development among the pre-Islamic Arabs of the 'relational' meaning of the word Allah, I think it is essential that we should distinguish between three different cases and examine the matter very carefully from the three different angles. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. On the contrary, it must have influenced in an indirect and unconscious way the religious outlook of his pagan contemporaries. As regards the 'basic' meaning of Allah, we may remark that many Western scholars have compared rightly -to my mind- the word in its formal aspect with the Greek "Ho Theos" which means quite simply 'the God'. That is why, for Ibn ‘Arabi (cf. And if this understanding of mine is right, then perhaps we might say with some confidence that this kind of attitude on the part of the Arab Christians must have placed an extremely important role in the development of a lofty and spiritualized concept of God among the pagan Arabs themselves. Did it reject them altogether as essentially incompatible with the new conception of God, as one might be tempted to suppose? Toshihiko Izutsu pernah membandingkan Taoisme dengan Sufisme, dua jenis filsafat-mistik yang tidak punya hubungan sama sekali. I am thinking of the concept of Allah peculiar to a very particular group of men in Jahiliyyah, known under the name of Hanifs, and represented, in our case, by the poet Umayyah b. Abi al-Salt, who, although he was neither a Jew nor a Christian, held religious ideas that were strikingly monotheistic in nature, and who must have made in many ways an important contribution to the permeation of Arabia by Jewish and Christian ideas. However this may be, we do not have to attach so much importance exclusively to this very particular problem of the partial identification of Allah, the Lord of Ka'bah and Allah the Christian God. The word namus, which is indeed the pivotal point of the story, is clearly the Greek nomos for law i.e. Let us now turn to the first of the four cases as distinguished above, that the autochthonous concept of God in pre-Islamic Arabia. Here the idea of Allah's being the Lord of Ka'bah is simply taken for granted as something natural and generally acknowledged. Impressive words uttered by a famous poet were propagated immediately within the tribe and beyond the tribe to the comers of the Arab world, "flying faster than an arrow" as they said. Next. Toshihiko Izutsu (井筒 俊彦, Izutsu Toshihiko, 4 May 1914 – 7 January 1993) was a Japanese philosopher of language and mysticism and an Islamic scholar. $34.95. The Word Allah, Its 'Basic' And 'Relational' Meanings: As I have pointed out repeatedly in the course of the previous account, Allah is the highest 'focus-word' in the Koranic system, which is surpassed by no other word in rank and importance. (II) The case in which we observe the Jews and the Christians of pre-Islamic times using the very word Allah in referring to their own God. However, the Koran itself bears abundant testimony to the fact that the matter was not so simple. This has already been pointed out by Henri Corbin and Toshihiko Izutsu and I shall not dwell on it, my ... Ibn ‘Arabi has included this hadîth in his Mishkât al-Anwâr and quotes it and comments on it many times. On the other hand, the monotheistic concept of God was spreading steadily among the Arabs, who, if they did not accept it as a matter of personal belief and faith, must have been at least well aware of the existence of some such concept of God among their neighbors and must have been quite familiar with it. “Dream and Reality. This shopping feature will continue to load items when the Enter key is pressed. Anis Malik Thoha (Kuala Lumpur: IIUM Press, 2010). Izutsu, Toshihiko, 1914-Izutsu, Toshihiko, 1914-1993; Toshihiko Izutsu Label from public data source Wikidata; Sources. Zen experience defies all thinking and linguistic description and simply affirms what is evidently real: "The ordinary way—that precisely is the Way." I. And naturally these Jews and Christians both used the same word Allah to denote their own Biblical God. He was a Professor at Keio University in Japan and author of many books on Islam and other religions. I have never quite understood the relationship between Toshihiko Izutsu and Traditionalism, and this new collection may hold some of the answers to that question. This last point will be dealt with in more detail a few paragraphs later. So, at first, each tribe may have meant its own local divinity, when it used an expression equivalent to "the God"; this is quite probable. 9098 Toshihiko, a main-belt asteroid; This page or section lists people that share the same given name. (III) Lastly, the case in which we see the pagan Arabs - non-Christian, non-Jewish pure Jahili Arabs - handling the Biblical concept of God under the name of "Allah". Abyssinia, to begin with, was Christian; the Abyssininas were Monophysites. The very fact that the name of Allah was common to both the pagan Arabs and the Muslims, particularly the fact that it gave rise to much heated discussion about the concept of God, would seem to suggest conclusively that there was some common ground of understanding between the two. Such an argument would lose its point completely if we do not suppose that the Koran assumes from the outset in those to whom Muhammad is to convey the Divine message at least some vague conception of Allah, which, although quite erroneous in many essential points from the standpoint of Islam, contains also a number of good and right elements that are quite acceptable. We should notice this last forcible expression "How then are you bewitched". Toshihiko Izutsu (井筒 俊彦, Izutsu Toshihiko? If this were not, so, his activity would have been quite pointless in this respect. The example of 'Adi b. Zayd's verse would seem to suggest, at least to my mind, that there was in the Christian psychology an unconscious tendency or inclination towards identifying -their Christian concept of Allah with the purely pagan Arabian concept of Allah as the Lord of the Meccan shrine. IV THE JUDEO-CHRISTIAN CONCEPT OF ALLAH IN THE HANDS OF THE PAGAN ARABS. Another great poet of Jahiliyyah, e1-A'sha al-Akbar had an intimate personal contact with the Bishops of Nairan, and his knowledge of Christianity was far from being a superficial one, as his Diwan shows clearly and conclusively. Were there some essential-not accidental-ties between the two concepts signified by one and the same name? And as a, result of their direct contact with these big centers of Christianity, some of the big nomadic tribes were in the process of Christianization. ), 4 mai 1914 et mort le 1er juillet 1993, est un islamologue et philosophe japonais polyglotte. Download books for free. So when the poet al-Nabighah uses the word Allah in saying that the king owes his Wonderful prosperity, wealth and power to the great favor of Allah, he must naturally mean by this the Christian God. God and Man in The Koran, Toshihiko Izutsu, Chapter 4: Allah, p96-119, 1980. In other words, the common semantic element of which we are talking now may be sought for in two different directions. A portrait documentary film project His original and suggestive approach opens new doors in the study of comparative philosophy and mysticism. In this deeply learned work, Toshihiko Izutsu compares the metaphysical and mystical thought-systems of Sufism and Taoism and discovers that, although historically unrelated, the two share features and patterns which prove fruitful for a transhistorical dialogue. And there is no cogent reason to deny that all this was part of the autochthonous religion of Arabian paganism, although this was evidently only the highest and best part of this religion. The Byzantine empire, whose high civilization was greatly admired by the Arabs was of course Christian. , chapter 4: Allah, p96-119, 1980 الملاك يُبجّل في بعض الأحيان وسيطاً. Izutsu ini merupakan kajian semantik terhadap konsep-konsep relasi tuhan dan manusia the time such... It a simple matter of a common word used for two different objects bewitched '' in the system! Contribution to Islamic Studies: the Legacy of Toshihiko Izutsu ini merupakan kajian semantik terhadap relasi! 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