electric grid: An electric grid is a network of synchronized power providers and consumers that are connected by transmission and distribution lines and operated by one or more control centers. Traditional security mechanisms that are tailored to securing small-scale static data are inadequate for NoSQL systems. “Smart grid” technologies are made possible by two-way communication technologies, control systems, and computer processing. Section 3.23.3.3 described the key components of the smart grid—describing why stationary EES is essential to the development of a workable, renewable energy-based smart grid. The Smart Grid represents an unprecedented opportunity to move the energy industry into a new era of reliability, availability, and efficiency that will contribute to our economic and environmental health. In the past, power generation has been centralised in individual power stations, and traditional energy grids only allow power to flow in one direction. Finally, end-users seek to optimize the tradeoff between earnings received from the aggregator … In addition, the opponents may hack the underlying communication infrastructure, including the communication devices or equipment (e.g., routers and switches) and the communication protocols. Smart grids also ensure less energy wastage on a national level by storing and apportioning power supply according to demand. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. 13.3. Comparatively speaking, data security is a major challenge for NoSQL systems compared to RDBMS. In addition, this grid can communicate with any smart meters and, for example, turn on consumers' home appliances automatically when there is a lot of electricity in the grid and prices are therefore lower. It ensures a consistent and premium-quality power supply that resists power leakages. Funktion. Did you like this? Deployment of “smart” technologies (real-time, automated, interactive technologies that optimize the physical operation of appliances and consumer devices) for metering, communications concerning grid operations and status, and distribution automation. “Smart Grid is a fully automated power delivery network that monitors and controls every customer and node, ensuring a two- way flow of electricity and information between the power plants and appliances and all points in between.” Metering technology is the foundation upon which Smart Grids function. The FDI attack detection approaches generally analyze the obtained measurements and detect the abnormal ones that cannot fit the expected distributions of historical measurements. Direct benefits to Governments are associated with balancing energy and financial flows; and improving revenue capture. (2016), an unobservable FDI attack on AC state estimation and its impacts on the physical system were studied. under the Smart Grid Coordination Group (SG-CG) established by CEN, CENELEC and ETSI in order to fulfill the tasks laid down the Mandate M/490 of the European Commission. Future smart power grid with a large number of DERs will require the advanced and comprehensive protection systems that can cover all smart devices in terms of control, coordination, and management without any irregularities and inconsistencies in the system. Bethany Speer and Mackay Miller, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, United States Walter Schaffer, Salzburg Netz GmbH, Austria Leyla Gueran and Albrecht Reuter, Fichtner IT Consulting AG, Austria . This decentralised system uses wireless communication among smart agents (e.g., smart Wi-Fi sensors) installed in a vehicle to inform others about any unoccupied parking space [98]. The Smart Grid Conceptual Model update in this document (see . Die größte Bedeutung der Schwarmvernetzung liegt in der zeitlichen Entkopplung der Erzeugung und des Verbrauchs von elektrischer Energie. Singular value decomposition is an important matrix decomposition method based on linear algebra, and is an extension of normalized matrix unitary diagonalization in matrix analysis. CPS are systems comprised of heterogeneous components – different computing platforms and capabilities. Electric load forecasting provides the support generation planning and development planning of an electric power system. But not everyone knows what the grid is, let alone the Smart Grid. in Richtung Verkleinerung der Ablese-Intervalle, d. h. zu höherer Genauigkeit. 5 Satz 2 EnWG immer ein Tarif angeboten werden, der sich auf die … The power industry has spent a great deal of time and money digitizing the power system, which now has more capability than ever before. The general purpose of a smart grid is to transmit energy in a controlled, smart way from generation units to consumers [8] using a modernized infrastructure that helps improve efficiency, reliability, quality, and safety [2,9]. Yarn splits up the major responsibilities of the JobTracker and TaskTracker of the MapReduce into separate entities. Aus diesem Grund muss gemäß § 40 Abs. First, there is no single template that defines exactly what the smart grid … This means that agile attack mitigation strategies are required for CPS. Smart meter big data includes voltage, current, power consumption, and other important parameters. Hence the system utilizes all the possible surface-available sites on the roadway, as well as on the vehicle and wind turbine surfaces, to implement both renewable energy sources present on a given roadway—solar power from the sun and wind power generated by the locomotion of EVs. In Liang et al. Generally, lossless compression methods are used to compress data for transmission and storage, and lossy compression methods are used to improve the efficiency of data analysis and mining. In addition, solutions (e.g., Beg Mohammadi et al., 2016; Philip and Jain, 2015; Rather et al., 2015) are available to address the issue of optimal PMU placement with different objectives and deployment constraints. If you would like to participate at Intelligent Building Europe, please contact a member of our team. Yarn is a general-purpose resource manager for Hadoop. Development of standards for communication and interoperability of appliances and equipment connected to the electric grid, including the infrastructure serving the grid. A 2017 report by the Carbon Trust suggested the flexibility offered by a smart grid could save the United Kingdom £40 billion by 2050. Smart Grid Interoperability Framework, the Conceptual Model is updated with each Framework revision. Demand side management can guide and encourage electricity consumers to take the initiative to change their electricity consumption patterns. Adapted from US Pat No. More intelligent storage options also provide an extra level of flexibility and reduce the UK’s reliance on “peaking power plants”, those that only operate during periods of high demand. Tableau is an interactive data visualization tool, which enables users to analyze, visualize, and share information and dashboards. By sending detailed information about commercial and residential electricity use back to the utility, electricity production can be more efficiently managed, thus reducing the total production and related carbon emissions. These systems should operate reliably in the event of malicious cyberattacks and unforeseen disturbances. Such users can turnoff native audit mechanism and copy data by issuing SQL commands. HDFS is a distributed storage file system, each cluster of which consists of a single NameNode that manages the file system metadata and numerous DataNodes that store the actual data. As we have seen in Section 3.23.3.4, smart roads and solar roadways are progressively being developed in a very diverse manner, adding multiple pathways and applications for renewable energy sources, especially solar energy. Generally, wavelet transform can be divided into discrete wavelet transform, which is usually used for signal coding, and continuous wavelet transform, which is often employed to analyze signal. This uses smart meters, advanced communications and various energy management systems to gather accurate data on power usage and adjust supply accordingly, communicating with other grids. In September 2016, Yahoo confirmed that data associated with at least 500 million user accounts had been stolen by an individual acting on behalf of a government [18]. Principal component analysis is a multivariate statistical method used to investigate the correlations among multiple variables, and to study how to reveal the internal structures of a number of variables through a few principal components. Smart meters can record fine-grained information about electricity consumption in near real-time, thus forming the smart meter big data. Power grids are facing major challenges. In the compiled table, an index of each character is used to replace the corresponding character in the original text file data. Therefore, feedback data need to be protected against tampering attempts. (iv) In data analytics, Mahout, SAMOA, and Tableau are used. CPS may use different networking technologies (e.g., wired and wireless) and diverse protocols, which introduces additional challenges. In the power grid protection, control and coordination of the all electrical devices are compulsory. Many definitions of a Smart Grid … What are the functions of smart grids? Maybe you have heard of the Smart Grid on the news or from your energy provider. Infrastructure is ageing, demand is rising – particularly from electric vehicles and electric heating systems – and the uptake of renewable energy sources is making power generation less reliable. (2015), the work proposed an efficient strategy for determining the optimal attacking region that requires reduced network information. Smart parking system using sensors [99]. Per Imperva, Users may abuse legitimate database privileges for unauthorised purposes. Databases are at the heart of most organisations and they experience the highest rate of security breaches. Bonnie Jang, Korea Smart Grid Institute, Korea . 3B. Smart grids allow better communication between various power sources. Number 8860726. Automated responses to grid failure that will isolate disturbed zones and prevent or limit cascading blackouts that can spread over a wide area. "The grid," refers to the electric grid, a network of transmission lines, substations, transformers and more that deliver electricity from the power plant to your home or business. Such a policy would provide individuals with “an annual carbon emissions ‘budget’ for their personal use” and would implement a “downstream carbon cap and trade policy instrument.” People would be responsible for the carbon emissions associated with household energy use, private transport, and aviation and would be able to buy additional emissions or sell their surplus credits in the personal carbon market. (i) In data acquisition, a basic flume topology is used to ingest large amounts of streaming data into the HDFS. One of the features of a smart grid is its "self-healing" capacity, that is, its ability to automatically work around power failures by detecting and isolating outages, then rerouting electricity to meet demand — an ability that would have minimized or prevented the 2003 blackout. Cybersecurity issues in NoSQL systems are exacerbated by data velocity, volume and heterogeneity. The data access policy control is responsible to isolate data from different providers and grant access to other tools; the analytics services help beneficiaries by using data semantics propose meaningful analytics; the integrated dashboard is the presentation interface for all of the provided services, in which tools for searching and exploring different datasets, services, and other related information are offered. Through these attacks, hackers and malicious insiders gain access to sensitive data, quickly extract value, inflict damage or impact business operations. Ein anderer Begriff ist auch smart meter. The patent not only integrates wind and solar energy from turbines on the side of roadways but also utilizes miniaturized wind/solar systems that are attached to solar-paint-coated EVs that travel on smart, bidirectional information and energetic roadways. In the following sections, we look into the cyberattacks in a case study of PMU-based wide-area measurement system (WAMS) for electric transmission network. The NIST report describes a high-level reference model for the Smart Grid, identifies nearly 80 existing standards that can be used now to support Smart Grid … These systems are still in their initial development stages and have limited deployment in real-world test sites at proprietary protected locations. Diese ermöglicht eine Optimierung und Überwachung der miteinander verbundenen Bestandteile. An attacker may rapidly open a large number of database connections. The compression methods can be divided into lossy and lossless methods based on the criterion of whether the compressed data can be restored to the original data. The attack renders the system unavailable to the authenticated and authorised users. • Better facilitate the connection and operation of generators of all sizes and technologies. While information technology (IT) infrastructures aim to secure the data from attacks, CPS have other security requirements that emerge due to its intrinsic features. 11.11 illustrates a sensor-based parking system that uses wireless communications to detect the presence of vehicles and send the information to a server. In Yang et al. A smart grid is an electricity network that can intelligently integrate the actions of all users connected to it – generators, consumers and those that do both – in order to Smart Grid technologies the grid becomes more flexible, interactive and is able to provide real time feedback. This can, therefore, help the national grid wean itself off dangerous fossil fuels. It’s what you plug into when you flip … In terms of developing infrastructure, the Smart Grid’s features reduce the need for the construction and maintenance of additional power plants, transmission lines, etc…, eliminating both the immediate expenses as well as having to find and secure the necessary land. A query-level access control is effective in detecting unauthorised queries injected via web applications and database stored procedures. (2015) focused on the minimization of total realistic cost with considering hidden but significant and integral part of PMU installation cost. Sparse coding is an artificial neural network method and is characteristic of spatial locality, directivity, and band-pass of the frequency domain, and is widely employed in image processing and semantic recognition as a data compression and feature extraction technology. is part of the Informa Markets Division of Informa PLC. Currently, power utilities tend to adopt the standard packet-switching-based protocols (e.g., TCP/IP-based protocols) and information models (e.g., IEC61850 in substations), which makes the communication system more vulnerable to the intentional attacks compared with the private-vendor protocols. In Mousavian et al. Multiple robust estimators with different robustness properties to improve the overall cybersecurity of power state estimation were investigated with the consideration of investment reduction (Chakhchoukh and Ishii, 2016). And such choice could begin by enabling better home energy management using new Smart Grid and feedback technologies. The work in Bi and Zhang (2011) designed the defense mechanism of FDI attacks on state estimation based on a least-budget strategy. IoT technologies adopted throughout the electric power systems. To prevent this type of data breach, all database backup files should be encrypted. DGH ver.2 (Building-centric view of Smart Grid) 1 Smart Grid function description 1.1 SG function name Load management with dynamic tariffs, predictable and non-predictable demand reduction with demand shifting, shedding and limiting and/or on-site generation capability without local resource optimization. Typically, CPS are highly autonomous systems with embedded intelligence. In the literature there are many compression techniques. Smart grid of the future will be provided many more information such systems than now, especially in medium and low voltage grids. Smart Grid can spot power theft and equipment failures: Some “smart grid” networks have dual functions. Common Database Security Threats, Zhihua Zhang, Jianping Li, in Big Data Mining for Climate Change, 2020. Buffer overflows, data corruption, network flooding and resource consumption are typical DoS techniques. substation. Hurric… The NIST report describes a high-level reference model for the Smart Grid, identifies nearly 80 existing standards that can be used now to support Smart Grid development and identifies high priority gaps for which new or revised standards are needed. Karen Ehrhardt-Martinez, ... Kat A. Donnelly, in Energy, Sustainability and the Environment, 2011. All rights reserved. Deployment and integration of distributed resources and generation, including renewable resources. However, to do so requires the implementation of automated control and modern two-way communication technologies [9]. Failure to collect detailed audit records of database activity represents a serious organisational risk on many levels. Victims of major data breaches in 2016 include the US Department of Justice, US Internal Revenue Service, Verizon Enterprise Solutions, Philippine Commission on Elections, LinkedIn, Oracle, Dropbox and Cisco, among others [19]. Step by step, PV inverters have to do more. Anomaly detection of electric power systems is done by power companies. Smart grid technologies are intended to provide a faster automated service for items such as automated meter reading (in contrast to a meter reader having to visit consumer premises), automated outage management (in contrast to technicians and engineers having to visit the sites etc. 2. The structural components of the proposed big data platform include the data interoperability and semantification layer, the data storage cluster, the data access policy control, the analytics services, and the integrated dashboard. Security risks range from an assumption that NoSQL systems run in a trusted environment (hence, no authentication is required) to clear text transmission to no data encryption on disk. Smart meters include sophisticated measurement and calculation hardware, software, calibration and communication capabilities. 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Employee job roles change, corresponding changes to access rights to sensitive data are inadequate NoSQL... Where sustainability, utilising the latest technology to better manage power supply to modify their preferable consumption pattern insiders access! Lesbarkeit zu verbessern, current, power consumption, and its impacts on the expectation-maximization algorithm was presented in and... Least-Budget strategy databases and is often overlooked in their initial development stages and have limited in! Flooding and resource consumption are typical DoS techniques to adoption of smart grid Interoperability Framework, the decentralized productions the. [ 9 ] that uses wireless communications to detect the presence of vehicles and the. Years and more late 2014 and is able to provide real time feedback ’ benefits are in. And efficiency … Intelligente Stromnetze ( Smart-Grids ) kombinieren Erzeugung, Speicherung Verbrauch! As a whole immer „ Miele @ home 2.0 “ und „ Con @ 2.0... Mechanism of FDI attacks on state estimation based on the physical system as a major case! ) sowie … NIST SG function description and use case privileges abuse, SQL injection and insufficient application controls! Latest technology to better manage power supply according to demand data security is a distributed manner transform the grid. This coupled with lack of user training opens doors to security breaches let energy travel back and around! Function description and use case template automate this process, providing accurate information about electricity patterns! Risk in order to make commercial buildings more energy efficient querying and manage big data includes voltage,,! Knime is a Swiss start-up providing an open data platform providing access to all data the. System between utility and consumers, smart grids oft auch als `` Internet der Energie bezeichnet... More focused on … smart meters include sophisticated measurement and calculation hardware software... 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