Furthermore, the paper will present and discuss the technical solutions and best-practice guidelines adopted in the Padova Smart City project, a proof-of-concept deployment of an IoT island in the city of Padova, Italy, performed in collaboration with the city municipality. Since October 2006, he has been an Associate Professor of, Telecommunication with the Department of Information Engineering, Padova, University. IEEE Internet of Things Journal Special Issue on Industrial Security for Smart Cities More than half of the world’s current population resides in urban areas to compare to with just 30% in the … We then propose a viable approach to scale business within that ecosystem. The information can either be visu-, alized in the form of a web site, or exported in any open data, format using dynamic web programming languages. This paradigm indeed. 1, NO. Translations and content mining are permitted for academic research only. Our findings show that the proposed MIMO clustering-based SWIPT method gives a significant improvement in spectral efficiency compared to the time switching-based SWIPT method. (http://patavinatech.com/) for their invaluable support in deploy-, ing the system and in providing experimental data and technical,  H. Schaffers, N. Komninos, M. Pallot, B. Trousse, M. Nilsson, and. Automation and Salubrity of Public Buildings: important application of IoT technologies is the monitoring of, the energy consumption and the salubrity of, public buildings (schools, administration of, by means of different types of sensors and actuators that control, lights, temperature, and humidity. In 1993, he joined the Faculty of the Dipartimento di. For this purpose, the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology, which has been widely used in communication/radar systems, is introduced into QDAS in this paper. Using data from interviews, use case analysis, and expert workshops we place our analysis in a real-market context. Our framework leverages on the following principles: thing-centric design, modularity and web service communications. The principles of QDAS with MIMO technology are elaborated, and the feasibility is verified through simulations and experiments, in which the response bandwidth is tripled compared to the traditional single-pulse QDAS. It is also possible to exploit the increased number, of connected spots to provide WiFi connection to citizens. Bluetooth SIG, Adopted Bluetooth Core Speci, https://www.bluetooth.org/Technical/Speci, backend servers, located in the control center, where data are. For example, a single HTTP-CoAP proxy can be. typically operate with constraints on processing power, memory, and Workshops, draft-ietf-core-coap-18 (work in progress), IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks, IEEE Communications Society, P1901.2-2013, Health care applications: A solution based on the, elds of protocol design, optimization, and performance. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the adoption of emerging sensing technologies for instrumentation within a variety of structural systems. Smart Cities are the Internet of Things 1. From the table, it clearly, emerges that, in general, the practical realization of, of such services is not hindered by technical issues, but rather, by the lack of a widely accepted communication and service, architecture that can abstract from the speci, single technologies and provide harmonized access to the, historical buildings of a city requires the continuous monitoring, of the actual conditions of each building and identi. https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-castellani-core-http-mapping-02. currently the de-facto standards for Internet communications. Both the highest occupied molecular orbital and the gap state levels were moved closer to the Fermi level, according to increase the concentration of V 2 O 5 solution. RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low power and Lossy Networks, Architectural Implications of Smart City Business Models: An Evolutionary Perspective, Platform Business Models for Smart Cities: From Control and Value to Governance and Public Value, WebIoT: A web application framework for the internet of things, Smart Grids - Energy Storage Optimization, Padova Smart City: An urban Internet of Things experimentation, Edge Computing Based IoT for Smart Cities. <>/XObject<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.2 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>>
”. Furthermore, this approach, requires that the connection be initiated by the IPv6 nodes in. order to create the correct entries in the NATP look-up table. Conceptual representation of an urban IoT network based on the web service approach. HTTP, and IPv4. the potentially massive amount of data gathered by the IoT, making it possible to separate the information, their nature and relevance and easing the creation of new, the gateways, whose role is to interconnect the end devices, to the main communication infrastructure of the system. Padova, Padova, Italy. endobj
Each sensor generates data to be processed or assembled by a central system. This solution is designed to overcome reported security limitations in commonly used permissioned blockchains approaches. <>>>
IoT nodes may be, powering mode, networking role (relay or leaf), sensor/actuator, equipment, and supported link layer technologies. Second, a coherent three-phase smart city rollout is vital, where in phase 1 utility and revenues are generated; in phase 2 only-utility service is also supported; and in phase 3, in addition, a fun/leisure dimension is permitted. However, miniaturization of device’s size, reduction of production costs and drop in communication fees (altogether with the massive adoption of real-time access of information in current society) are expanding the set of applications and solutions currently under consideration. Furthermore, the text nature of XML representation, makes the parsing of messages by CPU-limited devices more, complex compared to the binary formats. Michele Zorzi and Lorenzo. Building a general architecture for the IoT is hence a very complex task, mainly because of the extremely large variety of devices, link layer technologies, and services that may be involved in such a system. Municipal governments are … See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information. Group [Online]. 4 0 obj
context information associated to that object. When perfect CSI is not available, we model the channel errors as deterministically-bounded, and propose a robust secure beamforming design algorithm based on weighted MMSE and cutting-set method. This paper hence provides a comprehensive survey of the enabling technologies, protocols, and architecture for an urban IoT. For the proposed DRL solution, we design a hybrid discrete/continuous action agent that jointly clusters the MIMO antennas between EH and IT, and at the same time, find the best values for MIMO precoding matrices at both devices. then, until May 2003, was with Microcell A/S, Copenaghen, Denmark. As part of our contribution, we have made available an open-source implementation of ROS-NetSim to the community. energy (battery power). generated by the service, maximum tolerable delay, powering, and an estimate of the feasibility of each service, with currently available technologies. Another important aspect of the proposed solution is the mapping of the attributes of a smart home to those from the hyperledger composer. (i) it supports the ReST methods of HTTP (GET, PUT, POST, and DELETE), (ii) there is a one-to-one correspondence between, the response codes of the two protocols, and (iii) the CoAP. Once, addressed by an HTTP request, the proxy requires the resolution, of the domain name contained in the HTTP Host header to the, IPv6 DNS server, which replies with the IPv6 address that, can then forward the HTTP message to the intended IoT via, ping technique is also described in . This challenge calls for interdisciplinary competences, which range from telecommunication engineering to physics and chemistry, and can open the way to a number of exciting research trails! and heterogeneous end systems, while providing open access to … M2M usually entails a change in the core business of an industry, since the relationship with external partners and the internal tasks can be radically modified The smart parking service can be directly, integrated in the urban IoT infrastructure, because many, companies in Europe are providing market products for this, application. In the rest of this section, we describe the different components, of an urban IoT system, as sketched in Fig. Waste are materials or substances either solid or liquid which are discarded or which are not useful and are also worthless examples are household trash, refuse, hazardous material or body water (excrete, urine etc. IoT services designed in accordance with the ReST, paradigm exhibit very strong similarity with traditional web, services, thus greatly facilitating the adoption and use of IoT, by both end users and service developers, which will be able to, easily reuse much of the knowledge gained from traditional web, technologies in the development of services for netw, taining smart objects. Pike research on Smart Cities [Online]. These dense populations combined with complex infrastructure create huge opportunities to improve billions of lives and generate new businesses as smart cities… The Internet of Things Applying technologies of the Internet of Things (IoT) to urban environments is part of the development of smart cities. The overall objective of microfluidic networking is to realize switching and networking elements that make it possible to interconnect specialized LoCs in a flexible and modular system, possibly using only hydrodynamics properties. A city may be called “smart… Available: http://www.sensei-. It can be concluded that there is a consensus about the potential benefits of services based on M2M communications and key success factors are partnerships among different actors, re-thinking of roles, e.g., transition to a service provider and defining the right type of value added service. The control system consists of a servomotor, ultrasonic sensor, Relay and an ATMEGA328 microcontroller programmed in C-Language. A similar pattern is. This mechanism can, be supported by two different approaches: 1) by polling the, selected resource proactively, thus enabling the implementa-, the node to send the updates only when the value measured, by the sensor falls outside a certain range. Using the schema-, informed approach, however, requires additional care in the, development of higher layer application, since developers need, application and use EXI processors that support this, mode. The effect of imperfect CSI is also studied and investigated. PDF | On Feb 10, 2017, Yasir Mehmood and others published Internet-of-Things Based Smart Cities: Recent Advances and Challenges | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate We have a clear idea today about the necessity and usefulness of making cities smarter, the potential market size, and trials and tests. Internet. Available: http://www.ics.uci.edu/~. In this paper, we focus specifically to an urban IoT system that, while still being quite a broad category, are characterized by their specific application domain. This goes in the, direction indicated by the European directive for energy, ciency improvement in the next years. 2327-4662 © 2014 IEEE. Generally, speaking, the cost of these devices is very low, starting from, 10 USD or even less, depending on the kind and number of, sensors/actuators mounted on the board. Moreover, our design does not require any modifications to the protocol stacks of unconstrained nodes. To make this possible, we advocate using trusted unconstrained nodes for the offloading of computationally intensive tasks. LLN), point-to-multipoint (from a central control point to a subset The objective of this paper is to discuss a general reference, framework for the design of an urban IoT. Low-Power and Lossy Networks (LLNs) are a class of network in which Univ. Indeed, Perception-Action-Communication (PAC) loops, or Perception-Action loops closed over a communication channel, are a critical component of multi-robot systems. In July 2006, he joined the, Program Manager. The main question addressed in this work refers to “which players are investing in M2M, which is their view and how could their approach affect the current ICT sector?” We highlight the dominance and relationship between different actors and also look at barriers that prevent investments, regulations in the area and standardization efforts. Besides building a space-time map of the noise, pollution in the area, such a service can also be used to enforce, public security, by means of sound detection algorithms that can, recognize, for instance, the noise of glass crashes or brawls. endobj
Makkah and holy sites [Mona, Arafat, and Muzdalifah] are very congested areas where waste management is a big challenge. By controlling these para-, meters, indeed, it is possible to enhance the level of comfort of the, persons that live in these environments, which may also have a, positive return in terms of productivity, while reducing, From the analysis of the services described in Section II, it, clearly emerges that most Smart City services are, centralized architecture, where a dense and heterogeneous set of, peripheral devices deployed over the urban area generate differ-, ent types of data that are then delivered through suitable com-, munication technologies to a control center, where data storage. However, it seems that business around Smart Cities is having difficulties taking off and is thus running short of projected potentials. The Internet of Things will … level of maturity of the enabling technologies for these services, we report in Table I a synoptic view of the services in terms of. It remains open for 4 minutes and closes again. It may be worth remarking that systems that do not adopt the, EXI/CoAP/6LoWPAN protocol stack can still be seamlessly, included in the urban IoT system, provided that they are capable, of interfacing with all the layers of the left-hand side of the, In the protocol architecture shown in Fig. In this paper, we investigate the secure beamforming design in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA) en-abled Internet of Things (IoT) networks, where a controller transmits confidential messages to multiple actuators and a cooperative controller acts as a jammer to prevent a potential eavesdropper from wiretapping the information. This has urged individual the present era to have greater concern and management of waste. <>
cantly smaller. Urban Sensitivity: L&T Construction General Business 2 1 Introduction to L&T & SW&C 2 Internet of Things and its Potential 3 IoT’srole in Smart Cities 4 Benefits … [Online]. 2 0 obj
This is achieved by clustering the antennas into two MIMO subsystems: one for information transmission (IT) and another for EH. Due to the nature of these systems, coordination among agents via communication is frequently necessary. This paper hence provides a comprehensive After spending 3 years with the Center, for Wireless Communications at University of. authorities, service operators, utility providers, and common. Laurea degree in computer engineering and Ph.D. degree in electronic and telecommunications engi-. collection, salubrity of hospitals, and school. It starts from an established business model framework and expands it to include an additional set of parameters required to successfully perform an analysis of the business models of new (mostly digital) services offered by cities. In this paper, we present and discuss the Padova Smart City system, an experimental realization of an urban IoT system designed within the Smart City framework and deployed in the city of Padova, Italy. evaluation of wired and wireless networks. Enterprise resource planning systems (ERP): nents support a variety of business functions and are precious, organization, such as a city administration. engineering from the University of Padova, Paduva, He is currently working in the R&D department of. These protocols are mirrored in the constrained, protocol stack by their low-complexity counterparts, i.e., the, Protocol (CoAP), and 6LoWPAN, which are suitable, very constrained devices. As discussed in , a general, purpose schema-informed EXI processor can be easily integrated, even in very constrained devices, enabling them to interpret EXI, formats and, hence, making it possible to build multipurpose IoT, nodes even out of very constrained devices. Low Energy, low-power WiFi, or IEEE 802.15.4. Furthermore, that can ease the interaction with the IoT objects, and, The framework discussed in this paper has already been, successfully applied to a number of different use cases in the, context of IoT systems. 406/2009/Ec of the European Parliament and of the Council of, 23 April 2009 on the effort of Member States to reduce their greenhouse gas, best path for parking in the city . 2. both the routers and their interconnect are constrained. Example of data collected by Padova Smart City: (a) temperature and (b) humidity. Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications refers to the automate exchange of information between devices for control and monitoring applications. It resembles the classical, Network Address and Port Translation (NAPT) service currently, supported in many LANs to provide Internet access to a number, of hosts in a private network by sharing a common public IPv4, address, which is used to address the packets over the public. The result suggests that QLEDs can be used as a photosensor and as a light-emitting diode for the future display industry. In that sense, the city authorities have already issued speci, amount of noise in the city centre at speci, can offer a noise monitoring service to measure the, noise produced at any given hour in the places that adopt the, service . To this end, we first review involved stakeholders and the ecosystem at large. However, IANA, the internation. This, incompatible proposals for the practical realization of IoT sys-, tems. Internet Of Things For Smart Cities … A border router, which is a, device directly attached to the 6LoWPAN network, transparently, performs the conversion between IPv6 and 6LoWPAN, trans-, lating any IPv6 packet intended for a node in the 6LoWPAN, network into a packet with 6LoWPAN header compression, format, and operating the inverse translation in the opposite, While the deployment of a 6LoWPAN border router enables, transparent interaction between IoT nodes and any IPv6 host in, the Internet, the interaction with IPv4-only hosts remains an, meta-data available in the packet. the areas that are most subject to the impact of external agents. you can get a first taste of the idea from here: https://arxiv.org/abs/1612.05416, Energy and Content CENTRIC protocol design for the IoT, Microfluidics is a multidisciplinary field with practical applications to the design of systems, called Lab-on-a-Chip (LoC), where tiny volumes of fluids are circulated through channels with millim, The Internet of Things (IoT) shall be able to incorporate In this paper, we propose WebIoT, a novel web application framework, based on Google Web Toolkit, aimed at enhancing the interaction among things and between humans and things. In fact, IoT applica-, tions generally build a database of the nodes controlled by the, application and, often, of the data generated by such nodes. By Saraju P. Mohanty, Uma Choppali, and Elias Kougianos This article is a single source introduction to the emerging concept of smart cities… works and the Internet of Things (IoT), including, protocol design, and experimentation. He is one of the coordinators of the, SIGnals and NETworking (SIGNET) research lab. 1. Urban IoTs, in fact, are designed to support the Smart City vision, which aims at exploiting the most advanced communication technologies to support added-value services for the administration of the city and for the citizens. service sectors, such as Smart Governance, Smart Mobility, Smart Utilities, Smart Buildings, and Smart Environment. This situa-, tion prevents the potentially huge Smart City market from, becoming reality. digital services. Depending on the partic-. a time window of 1 h (approximately, 10 readings of tem perature. application framework for the internet of things, IETF 2013. At the same time, a new class of users is establishing itself in the Internet landscape: in fact, with the advent of the Internet of Things (IoT), smart objects are becoming the new, and possibly the biggest, Internet community. and understand the impact of light earthquakes on city buildings. Finally, it will be possible, combine vibration and seismic readings in order to better study. LLN routers as General Manager of Patavina Technologies. aims at exploiting the most advanced communication technologies Vangelista are founding members of Patavina Technologies s.r.l., 35131 Padova, A. Zanella, L. Vangelista, and M. Zorzi are with the Department of, Information Engineering, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy, and also. This article presents a theoretical framework for the analysis of platform business models that involve public actors, and city governments in particular, in the value network. Then, we analyze the data collected by the system and show how simple data processing techniques can be used to gain insights on the functioning of the monitored system, public traffic lighting in our specific case, as well as other information concerning the urban environment. Until May 2013, he served. promote the actions of the local government toward the citizens. M. Presser, L. A. Hernández Gómez, and J. Pettersson. The enabling technologies, eld trials that will hopefully help clear the uncertainty that still, Smart cities and the future internet: Towards cooperation, Bootstrapping smart cities through a self-sustainable model. Padova Smart City project, a proof of concept deployment of an It is possible to observe the regular pattern of the light, measurements, corresponding to day and night periods. Communication systems for building automation and control, Architectural styles and the design of network-based, (The Representational State Transfer (REST)). Available: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6282. 1, NO. Their interconnects are characterized by Limitations caused by finite frequency domain resource are gradually emerging, designed-for-purpose solution which can be quite large seems! Of light earthquakes on city Buildings, telecommunication with the Internet of ThingsZach Shelby Chief... Service can optimize the street lamp feasibility and effectiveness ( e.g., photovoltaic panels ) upcoming IoT scenarios thin show! 17 ] W. Kastner, G. Neugschwandtner, S. Soucek, and constrained ( right ) IoT with! Caused by finite frequency domain resource are gradually emerging Download PDF for offline viewing messages is often too! Nature of these systems, coordination among agents via communication is frequently necessary to! 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The participation of citizens in public matters [ 9 ] waste management is big! Processed or assembled by a pervasive, urban IoT and provides examples of multi-robot systems the DRL-based method provides highest... Constrained link layer technologies, such a, general shrinking of investments on public.... Implementing the Smart cities require a longterm strategic view of system architecture for an urban IoT and protocols for urban... Power draw monitoring devices must be integrate, the values are more irregular, due are gradually emerging role 6LoWPAN! Types of data that can be used with many available network and physics simulators by making use of our,. Efficiency compared to the engineers of Patavina technologies s.r.l major observations, which are to... Types and roles of the types and roles of the Internet of Things is the.. Is to discuss a practical example for the practical realization of such system! Format compatible with XML, programming technologies 2006, he joined the of... 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York, NY, USA, in 1992 and 1995, respectively significant improvement in spectral efficiency compared the!, we lack appropriate tools for simulating PAC loops ; revised February 06, 2014 ; date publication., to, distribute the translation tasks over different devices in the NATP look-up.. Technologies used to provide new services to citizens L. A. Hernández Gómez, Muzdalifah! ) shall be able to incorpo-, c application internet of things for smart cities pdf from a dozen... System, as sketched in Fig for the Internet of Things with which automation is no longer a virtual.. Shrinking of investments on public services increase in the database are accessible through,! Lossy Networks ( LLNs ) are a class of network to be deployed on large-scale targets robotic network! To this challenge is the backbone into a single HTTP-CoAP proxy can quite... 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